I had never heard of this concept (I suppose if I worked more with Foucault I might have come across it by now), so I did some more looking around. I couldn't find information on the volume itself, although I have some suspicions that it might actually be the same thing as What (Good) is Historical Epistemology?, from a conference at the Max Planck Institute.
There have been other recent events around historical epistemology as well, including a conference at Columbia and at K.U. Leuven. "Historical Epistemology" seems to be exactly what it sounds like- an historical approach to conditions and possibilities of knowledge. The approach appears to be mostly discussed in the history and philosophy of science. Below is the description from the Columbia conference, which offers a good introduction of what's being talked about:
At the intersection of philosophy and history, historical epistemology has become in recent years a powerful alternative to traditional approaches to the history of science and philosophy. Focused upon conditions of possibility that transcend social causes and biographical idiosyncrasies, historical epistemology uncovers the fundamental concepts that organize the knowledge of different historical periods. It might be defined as the discipline that introduces historical contingency into the ways of understanding the world that appear inescapable to people. Kant was wrong, historical epistemology argues, to think that human beings can only understand the world as, say, Euclidean or ruled by causality. He was right, historical epistemology contends, to work to understand the conditions of possibility underlying knowledge and practice; such careful philosophical work needs to be historically specific.This conversation seems quite related to some of my recent interests, which have tended to focus on historical understanding and conceptions of knowledge, interpretation, and understanding as they relate to theological problems. Arnold Davidson of the Divinity School and Lorrain Daston (recently a visiting professor at the Committee on Social Thought) seem to be closely connected with historical epistemology, although I don't know whether it has a wider presence at Chicago.
Historical epistemology is a distinctive Franco-American approach to the history of philosophy and science. Building upon an earlier tradition of French history and philosophy of science culminating in the work of Georges Canguilhem, the work of Michel Foucault pointed towards historical epistemology as a viable approach for studying the past by uncovering and reconstructing the underlying historical apriori of different periods. Three of the most prominent historical epistemologists -- Lorraine Daston, Arnold Davidson and Ian Hacking -- drew on different aspects of Anglo-American philosophy and history in developing Canguilhem and Foucault’s approaches.
The precise contours of historical epistemology nevertheless remain blurry. Some eagerly endorse this approach yet do not offer any sharp positive definition (such as Davidson); others attempt to distinguish it from the history of epistemology in ways that some scholars have found unconvincing (e.g., Daston, criticized by Yves Gingras); still others dispute the name itself, but not the practice (Hacking). Without denying that a certain conceptual imprecision can sometimes be methodologically fruitful, this conference on historical epistemology will bring together scholars who have rarely had the opportunity to discuss publicly their ideas on historical epistemology.
If anyone knows more about historical epistemology or has some thoughts on how it might be applied to theological work, please feel free to share. It also seems as if this is a more recent amalgamation of ideas that can actually be traced back a good ways... that is, the ideas presented here are probably a lot older than the disciplinary nomenclature. As far as that is the case, I imagine there's a lot of creative space for relating some of these newer insights with work that has come before.
At the very least, I suppose, there are a few more edited collections to keep an eye on.